Water, climate change mitigation and climate adaptation are all global challenges.
Sustainability is the talk of the town. New initiatives in environmental management, energy savings, heat reduction and climate care are embraced with open arms and the use and reuse of renewable resources encouraged. Advanced technologies play an important role in these improvements.
Migrating to alternative energy sources to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and the emission of greenhouse gasses has huge consequences for the world's energy economy. The availability of fossil fuel is decreasing and the increasing scarcity is causing fuel prices to rise. The CO2 and NOx emitted during the combustion of fossil fuel are major contributors to global warming and therefore to climate change. But alternatives can have undesired side-effects too, such as rising food prices in the case of biofuel. Public awareness of just how dangerous nuclear power plants can be has prompted Germany and Belgium to close their nuclear power plants partly in response to the disasters in Fukushima and Chernobyl. Hydrogen has also proven difficult to use because the finely meshed infrastructure needed to store and distribute it isn't in place. Moreover, hydrogen is an energy carrier fraught with technical problems; it takes a lot of fossil or other fuel to generate it.